CAESALPINIA SEPIARIA (syn C. japonica).—India,
1857. This is as yet a comparatively little known shrub, but one
that from its beauty and hardihood is sure to become a general
favourite. Planted out in a light, sandy, peaty soil, and where
fully exposed, this shrub has done well, and proved itself a
suitable subject for the climate of England at least. The hard
prickles with which both stem and branches are provided renders the
shrub of rather formidable appearance, while the leaves are of a
peculiarly pleasing soft-green tint. For the flowers, too, it is
well worthy of attention, the pinky anthers contrasting so markedly
with the deep yellow of the other portions of the flower. They are
arranged in long racemes, and show well above the foliage.
CALLUNA VULGARIS (syn Erica vulgaris).—Common Ling
on Heather. This is the commonest native species, with
purplish-pink flowers on small pedicels. There are many very
distinct and beautiful-flowering forms, the following being some of
the best: C. vulgaris alba, white-flowered; C. vulgaris Hammondi,
C. vulgaris minor, and C. vulgaris pilosa, all white-flowered
forms; C. vulgaris Alportii, and C. vulgaris Alportii variegata,
the former bearing rich crimson flowers, and the latter with
distinctly variegated foliage; C. vulgaris argentea, and C.
vulgaris aurea, with silvery-variegated and golden foliage; C.
vulgaris flore-pleno, a most beautiful and free-growing variety,
with double flowers; C. vulgaris Foxii, a dwarf plant that does not
flower freely; and C. vulgaris pumila, and C. vulgaris dumosa,
which are of small cushion-like growth.
CALOPHACA WOLGARICA.—Siberia, 1786. This member of the Pea
family is of dwarf, branching growth, thickly clothed with
glandular hairs, and bears yellow flowers, succeeded by
reddish-purple pods. It is of no special importance as an
ornamental shrub, and is most frequently seen grafted on the
Laburnum, though its natural easy habit of growth is far
preferable. Hailing from Siberia, it may be considered as fairly
hardy at least.
CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS.—Carolina Allspice. Carolina, 1726.
If only for the purplish-red, pleasantly-scented flowers, this
North American shrub is worthy of extensive culture. The hardiness,
accommodating nature, and delicious perfume of its
brightly-coloured flowers render this shrub one of the choicest
subjects for the shrubbery or edges of the woodland path. It is of
easy though compact growth, reaching in favourable situations a
height of 12 feet, and with ovate leaves that are slightly
pubescent. Growing best in good fairly moist loam, where partial
shade is afforded, the sides of woodland drives and paths will suit
this Allspice well; but it wants plenty of room for
branch-development. There are several nursery forms of this shrub,
such as C. floridus glaucus, C. floridus asplenifolia, and C.
floridus nanus, all probably distinct enough, but of no superior
ornamental value to the parent plant.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Californian or Western Allspice.
California, 1831. This is larger in all its parts than the former,
and for decorative purposes is even preferable to that species. The
flowers are dark crimson, and nearly twice as large as those of C.
floridus, but rather more sparsely produced. This is a very
distinct and desirable species, and one that can be recommended for
lawn and park planting, but, like the former, it delights to grow
in a rather moist and shady situation.
CARAGANA ARBORESCENS.—Siberian Pea Tree. Siberia, 1752. On
account of its great hardihood, this is a very desirable garden
shrub or small-growing tree. The bright-yellow, pea-shaped flowers
are very attractive, while the deep-green, pinnate foliage imparts
to the tree a somewhat unusual but taking appearance. Soil would
not seem to be of much moment in the cultivation of this, as,
indeed, the other species of Caragana, for it thrives well either
on dry, sunny banks, where the soil is light and thin, or in good
stiff, yellow loam.
C. FRUTESCENS.—Siberia, 1852. Flowers in May, and is of
partially upright habit; while C. Chamlagii, from China, has
greenish-yellow flowers, faintly tinted with pinky-purple.
C. MICROPHYLLA (syn C. Altagana), also from Siberia, is
smaller of growth than the foregoing, but the flowers are
individually larger. It is readily distinguished by the more
numerous and hairy leaflets and thorny nature.
C. SPINOSA.—Siberia, 1775. This, as the name indicates, is
of spiny growth, and is a beautiful and distinct member of the
family. They are all hardy, and readily propagated from seed.
CARDIANDRA ALTERNIFOLIA.—Japan, 1866. With its neat habit,
and pretty purple-and-white, plentifully-produced flowers, this is
worthy of the small amount of care and coddling required to insure
its growth in this country. Hailing from Japan, it cannot be
reckoned as very hardy, but treated as a wall plant this pretty
evergreen does well and flowers freely. It can, however, be said
that it is equally hardy with some of the finer kinds of Hydrangea,
to which genus it is nearly allied.
CARPENTERIA CALIFORNICA.—Sierra Nevada, California, 1880.
This is undoubtedly one of the most distinct and beautiful of hardy
shrubs. That it is perfectly hardy in England and Ireland
recently-conducted experiments conclusively prove, as plants have
stood unprotected through the past unusually severe winters with
which this country has been visited. When in full bloom the
pure-white flowers, resembling those of the Japanese Anemone,
render it of great beauty, while the light gray leaves are of
themselves sufficient to make the shrub one of particular
attraction. The Carpenteria is nearly related to the Mock Orange
(Philadelphus), grows about 10 feet in height, with lithe and
slender branches, and light gray leaves. The flowers, which are
pure white with a bunch of yellow stamens, and sweet-scented, are
produced usually in fives at the branch-tips, and contrast markedly
with the long and light green foliage. It grows and flowers with
freedom almost anywhere, but is all the better for wall protection.
From cuttings or suckers it is readily increased.
CARYOPTERIS MASTACANTHUS.—China and Japan, 1844. This is a
neat-growing Chinese shrub, and of value for its pretty flowers
that are produced late in the autumn. It must be ranked as fairly
hardy, having stood through the winters of Southern England
unprotected; but it is just as well to give so choice a shrub the
slight protection afforded by a wall. The leaves are neat,
thickly-arranged, and hoary, while the whole plant is twiggy and of
strict though by no means formal growth. Flowers lavender-blue,
borne at the tips of the shoots, and appearing in succession for a
considerable length of time. Light, sandy peat would seem to suit
it well, at least in such it grows and flowers freely.
CASSANDRA CALYCULATA (syn Andromeda
calyculata).—North America, 1748. This is a handsome
species from the Virginian swamps, but one that is rarely seen in a
very satisfactory condition in this country. It grows about 18
inches high, with lanceolate dull-green leaves, and pretty
pinky-white flowers, individually large and produced abundantly.
For the banks of a pond or lake it is a capital shrub and very
effective, particularly if massed in groups of from a dozen to
twenty plants in each. There are several nursery forms, of which A.
calyculata minor is the best and most distinct.
CASSINIA FULVIDA (syn Diplopappus
chrysophyllus).—New Zealand. This is a neat-growing and
beautiful shrub, the rich yellow stems and under sides of the
leaves imparting quite a tint of gold to the whole plant. The
flowers are individually small, but the whole head, which is
creamy-white, is very effective, and contrasts strangely with the
golden sheen of this beautiful shrub. It is inclined to be of
rather upright growth, is stout and bushy, and is readily increased
from cuttings planted in sandy soil in the open border. Probably in
the colder parts of the country this charming shrub might not prove
perfectly hardy, but all over England and Ireland it seems to be
quite at home. The flowers are produced for several months of the
year, but are at their best about mid-November, thus rendering the
shrub of still further value. It grows freely in sandy peaty soil
of a light nature.
CASSIOPE FASTIGIATA (syn Andromeda fastigiata) and C.
TETRAGONA (syn Andromeda tetragona) are small-growing
species, only suitable for rock gardening—the former of neat
upright habit, with large pinky-white bells all along the stems;
and the latter of bushy growth, with square stems and small white
CASTANEA SATIVA (syn C. vesca and C.
vulgaris).—Sweet Spanish Chestnut. Asia Minor. Few
persons who have seen this tree as an isolated specimen and when in
full flower would feel inclined to exclude it from our list. The
long, cylindrical catkins, of a yellowish-green colour, are usually
borne in such abundance that the tree is, during the month of June,
one of particular interest and beauty. So common a tree needs no
description, but it may be well to mention that there are several
worthy varieties, and which flower almost equally well with the
CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES.—Indian Bean. North America, 1798.
When in full bloom this is a remarkable and highly ornamental tree,
the curiously-marked flowers and unusually large, bronzy-tinted
foliage being distinct from those of almost any other in
cultivation. That it is not, perhaps, perfectly hardy in every part
of the country is to be regretted, but the numerous fine old
specimens that are to be met with all over the country point out
that there need be little to fear when assigning this pretty and
uncommon tree a position in our parks and gardens. The flowers,
produced in spikes at the branch-tips, are white, tinged with
violet and speckled with purple and yellow in the throat.
Individually the flowers are of large size and very ornamental,
and, being produced freely, give the tree a bright and pleasing
appearance when at their best. Usually the tree attains to a height
of 30 feet in this country, with rather crooked and ungainly
branches, and large heart-shaped leaves that are downy beneath. It
flourishes well on any free soil, and is an excellent
smoke-resisting tree. C. bignonioides aurea is a decided variety,
that differs mainly in the leaves being of a desirable golden
C. BUNGEI and C. KAEMPFERI, natives of China and Japan, are
hardly to be relied upon, being of tender growth, and, unless in
the most favoured situations, suffer from our severe winters. They
resemble our commonly cultivated tree.
C. SPECIOSA.—United States, 1879. The Western Catalpa is
more erect and taller of growth than C. bignonioides. The flowers
too are larger, and of purer white, and with the throat markings of
purple and yellow more distinct and not inclined to run into each
other. Leaves large, heart-shaped, tapering to a point, of a light
pleasing green and soft to the touch. It flowers earlier, and is
more hardy than the former.
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS.—New Jersey Tea. North America, 1713.
A shrub of 4 feet in height, with deep green serrated leaves, that
are 2 inches long and pubescent on the under sides. Flowers white,
in axillary panicles, and produced in great abundance. This is one
of the hardiest species, but succeeds best when afforded wall
C. AZUREUS.—Mexico, 1818. This species, though not hardy
enough for every situation, is yet sufficiently so to stand
unharmed as a wall plant. It grows from 10 feet to 12 feet high,
with deep-green leaves that are hoary on the under sides. The
flowers, which are borne in large, axillary panicles, are bright
blue, and produced in June and the following months. In a light,
dry soil and sunny position this shrub does well as a wall plant,
for which purpose it is one of the most ornamental. There are
several good nursery forms, of which the following are amongst the
best:—C. azureus Albert Pettitt, C. azureus albidus, C.
azureus Arnddii, one of the best, C. azureus Gloire de Versailles,
and C. azureus Marie Simon.
C. CUNEATUS (syn C. verrucosus).—California, 1848.
This is another half-hardy species that requires wall protection,
which may also be said of C. Veitchianus, one of the most beautiful
of the family, with dense clusters of rich blue flowers and a neat
habit of growth.
C. DENTATUS.—California, 1848. With deeply-toothed,
shining-green leaves, and deep blue, abundantly-produced flowers,
this is a well-known wall plant that succeeds in many parts of the
country, particularly within the influence of the sea. It commences
flowering in May, and frequently continues until frosts set in. It
is a very desirable species, that in favoured situations will grow
to fully 10 feet high, and with a spread laterally of nearly the
C. PAPILLOSUS.—California, 1848. This is a straggling
bush, with small, blunt leaves, and panicles of pale blue flowers
on long footstalks. A native of California and requiring wall
C. RIGIDUS.—Another Californian species, is of upright,
stiff growth, a sub-evergreen, with deep purple flowers produced in
April and May.
There are other less hardy kinds, including C. floribundus, C.
integerrimus, C. velutinus, and C. divaricatus.
CEDRELA SINENSIS (syn Ailanthus flavescens).—China,
1875. This is a fast growing tree, closely resembling the
Ailanthus, and evidently quite as hardy. It has a great advantage
over that tree, in that the flowers have an agreeable odour, those
of the Ailanthus being somewhat sickly and unpleasant. The flowers
are individually small, but arranged in immense hanging bunches
like those of Koelreuteria paniculata, and being pleasantly scented
are rendered still the more valuable. The whole plant has a yellow
hue, and the roots have a peculiar reddish colour, and very unlike
those of the Ailanthus, which are white.
CELASTRUS SCANDENS.—Climbing Waxwork, or Bitter Sweet.
North America, 1736. When planted in rich, moist soil, this soon
forms an attractive mass of twisting and twining growths, with
distinct glossy foliage in summer and brilliant scarlet fruit in
autumn. The flowers are inconspicuous, the chief beauty of the
shrub being the show of fruit, which resembles somewhat those of
the Spindle Tree (Euonymus), and to which it is nearly allied. A
native of North America, it grows from 12 feet to 15 feet high, and
is useful in this country for covering arches or tree stems, or for
allowing to run about at will on a mound of earth or on
CELTIS AUSTRALIS.—South Europe, 1796. This species is much
like C. occidentalis, with black edible fruit. It is not of so tall
growth as the American species.
C. OCCIDENTALIS.—Nettle tree. North America, 1656. In
general appearance this tree resembles the Elm, to which family it
belongs. It has reticulated, cordate-ovate, serrated leaves, with
small greenish flowers on slender stalks, and succeeded by
blackish-purple fruit about the size of a pea. A not very
ornamental tree, at least so far as flowers are concerned, but
valuable for lawn planting. It varies very much in the size and
shape of the leaves.
CERCIS CANADENSIS.—North America, 1730. This species
resembles C. Siliquastrum, but is of much smaller growth, and bears
paler flowers; while C. CHINENSIS, which is not hardy, has large,
C. SILIQUASTRUM.—Judas Tree. South Europe, 1596. A
small-growing tree of some 15 feet in height, and with usually a
rather ungainly and crooked mode of growth. It is, however, one of
our choicest subjects for ornamental planting, the handsome
reniform leaves and rosy-purple flowers produced along the branches
and before the leaves appear rendering it a great favourite with
planters. There are three distinct forms of this shrub—the
first, C. Siliquastrum alba, having pure white flowers; C.
Siliquastrum carnea, with beautiful deep pink flowers; and C.
Siliquastrum variegata, with neatly variegated foliage, though
rather inconstant of character. Natives of South Europe, and
amongst the oldest trees of our gardens.
They all succeed best when planted in rather damp loam, and do
not object to partial shade, the common species growing well even
beneath the drip of large standard trees.
CHIMONANTHUS FRAGRANS.—Winter Flower. Japan, 1766. This
Japanese shrub is certainly one of the most remarkable that could
be brought under notice, the deliciously fragrant flowers being
produced in abundance during the winter months, and while the plant
is yet leafless. Being of slender growth, it is best suited for
planting against a wall, the protection thus afforded being just
what is wanted for the perfect development of the pretty flowers.
C. fragrans grandiflora has larger and less fragrant flowers than
the species, and is more common in cultivation.
CHIONANTHUS RETUSA.—China, 1852. This is not a very hardy
species, and, being less ornamental than the American form, is not
to be recommended for general planting.
C. VIRGINICA.—Fringe Tree. North America, 1736. A very
ornamental, small-growing tree, with large deciduous leaves and
pendent clusters of pure white flowers with long fringe-like
petals, and from which the popular name has arisen. It is a
charming tree, or rather shrub, in this country, for one rarely
sees it more than 10 feet high, and one that, to do it justice,
must have a cool and rather damp soil and a somewhat shady
CHOISYA TERNATA.—Mexican Orange Flower. Mexico, 1825. A
beautiful and distinct shrub that succeeds well in the south and
west of England. The evergreen leaves are always fresh and
beautiful, and of a dark shining green, while the sweetly-fragrant
flowers are produced freely on the apices of last year’s wood. They
have a singular resemblance to those of the orange, and on the
Continent are commonly grown as a substitute for that popular
flower. The plant succeeds well in any light, rich soil, and soon
grows into a goodly-sized shrub of 4 feet or 5 feet in height. As a
wall plant it succeeds well, but in warm, maritime situations it
may be planted as a standard without fear of harm. Cuttings root
freely if placed in slight heat.
CISTUS CRISPUS.—Portugal, 1656. This is a distinct
species, with curled leaves, and large reddish-purple flowers. It
is a valuable ornamental shrub, but, like the others, suffers from
the effects of frost.
C. LADANIFERUS.—Gum Cistus. Spain, 1629. A pretty but
rather tender shrub, growing in favourable situations to about 4
feet in height. It has lanceolate leaves that are glutinous above,
and thickly covered with a whitish tomentum on the under sides, and
large and showy vhite flowers with a conspicuous purple blotch at
the base of each petal. Unless in southern and western England, but
particularly on the sea-coast, this handsome Portuguese shrub is
not to be depended on, in so far as hardihood is concerned.
C. LAURIFOLIUS.—Laurel-leaved Cistus. Spain, 1731. This is
the hardiest species in cultivation, but, like the latter, is
favourable to the milder parts of these islands, and especially
maritime districts. Frequently it rises to 7 feet in height, and is
then an object of great beauty, the large yellowish-white flowers
showing well above the deep green Laurel-like leaves.
C. MONSPELIENSIS (South of Europe, 1656), and its variety C.
monspeliensis florentinus, the former with white, and the latter
with white and yellow flowers, are fairly hardy in the milder parts
of Britain, but cannot be recommended for general planting.
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple-flowered Cistas. In this species,
which may rank next to the latter in point of hardihood, the
flowers are of a deep reddish-purple, and with a darker blotch at
the base of each petal.
C. SALVIFOLIUS is of loose and rather untidy growth, with rugose
leaves and white flowers. It is very variable in character, and the
form generally cultivated grows about 4 feet high, and has
ovate-lanceolate, almost glabrous leaves.
Other species that are occasionally to be found in collections
are C. creticus, with yellow and purple flowers; C. hirsutus, white
with yellow blotches at the base of the petals; and C. Clusii, with
very large pure-white flowers. All the species of Gum Cistus, or
Rock Rose as they are very appropriately named, will be found to
succeed best when planted in exalted positions, and among light,
though rich, strong soil. They are easy of propagation.
CITRUS TRIFOLIATA.—Japan, 1869. This is a singular
low-growing shrub, with ternate leaves, spiny branches, and
fragrant white flowers. It is hardy in many English situations, but
does not fruit freely, although the orange-blossom-like flowers are
produced very abundantly. A pretty little glossy-leaved shrub that
is well worthy of attention, particularly where a cosy corner can
be put aside for its cultivation.
CLADRASTIS AMURENSIS.—Amoor Yellow Wood. Amur, 1880. This
is a shrub that is sure to be extensively cultivated when better
known, and more readily procured. It has stood uninjured for
several years in various parts of England, so that its hardihood
may be taken for granted. The pretty olive-green of the bark, and
the greyish-green of the leathery leaves, render the shrub one of
interest even in a flowerless state. In July and August the dense
spikes of white, or rather yellowish-white flowers are produced
freely, and that, too, even before the shrub has attained to a
height of 2 feet. It is well worthy of extended culture.
C. TINCTORIA (syn C. lutea and Virgilia
lutea).—Yellow Wood. North America, 1812. This is a
handsome deciduous tree that does well in many parts of the
country, and is valued for the rich profusion of white flowers
produced, and which are well set-off by the finely-cut pinnate
leaves. It is a valuable tree for park and lawn planting, requiring
a warm, dry soil, and sunny situation—conditions under which
the wood becomes well-ripened, and the flowers more freely
CLEMATIS ALPINA (syn Atragene alpina, A. austriaca and
A. siberica).—Europe and North America. This is a
climbing species with bi-ternately divided leaves, and large
flowers with four blue sepals and ten to twelve small flattened
organs, which are usually termed petals.
C. CIRRHOSA.—Evergreen Virgin’s Bower. Spain, 1596. An
interesting, early-flowering species. The flowers, which are
greenish-white, are produced in bunches and very effective. It is
an evergreen species, of comparative hardihood, and flowers well in
C. FLAMMULA.—Virgin’s Bower. France, 1596. This old and
well-known plant is quite hardy in this country. The leaves are
pinnate, and the flowers white and fragrant. C. Flammula
rubro-marginata is a worthy and beautiful-leaved variety.
C. FLORIDA.—Japan, 1776. This is a beautiful species, and
an old inhabitant of English gardens. Leaves composed of usually
three oval-shaped leaflets, and unusually bright of tint. The
flowers are very large, and pure white. It should be planted in a
warm sheltered corner against a wall.
C. GRAVEOLENS.—This is a dwarf shrub, with neatly
tripinnate leaves, and solitary, strongly-scented yellow flowers of
medium size. A native of Chinese Tartary, and quite hardy.
C. LANUGINOSA.—China, 1851. A handsome species, with large
purple leaves that are hairy on the under sides. Flowers pale blue
or lilac, very large, and composed of six or eight spreading
sepals. C. lanuginosa pallida has immense flowers, often fully half
a foot in diameter. Flowers in June.
C. MONTANA.—Nepaul, 1831. This is valuable on account of
its flowering in May. It is a free-growing species, with
trifoliolate leaves on long footstalks, and large white flowers. C.
montana grandiflora is a beautiful variety, having large white
flowers so abundantly produced as to hide the foliage. It is quite
hardy and of rampant growth.
C. PATENS (syns C. caerulea and C. azurea
grandiflora).—Japan, 1836. This has large, pale-violet
flowers, and is the parent of many single and double flowered
forms. The typical form is, however, very deserving of cultivation,
on account of the freedom with which it blooms during June and July
from the wood of the previous year. It is perfectly hardy even in
the far north.
C. VIORNA.—Leather Flower. United States. This is a showy,
small-flowered species, the flowers being campanulate,
greenish-white within and purplish without. C. Viorna coccinea is
not yet well known, but is one of the prettiest of the
small-flowered section. The flowers, which are leathery as in the
species, are of a beautiful vermilion on the outside and yellow
C. VITALBA.—Lady’s Bower, or Old Man’s Beard. A handsome
native climbing shrub, common in limestone or chalky districts, and
unusually abundant in the southern English counties. Clambering
over some neglected fence, often to nearly 20 feet in height, this
vigorous-growing plant is seen to best advantage, the three or
five-lobed leaves and festoons of greenish-white, fragrant flowers,
succeeded by the curious and attractive feathery carpels, render
the plant one of the most distinct and desirable of our native
wildlings flowering in August.
C. VITICELLA.—Spain, 1569. This is a well-known species of
not too rampant growth, and a native of Spain and Italy. The
flowers vary a good deal in colour, but in the typical plant they
are reddish-purple and produced throughout the summer. Crossed with
C. lanuginosa, this species has produced many ornamental and
beautiful hybrids, one of the finest and most popular being C.
C. WILLIAMSI (syn C. Fortunei).—Japan, 1863. The
fragrant, white flowers of this species are semi-double, and
consist of about 100 oblong-lanceolate sepals narrowed to the base.
The leathery leaves are trifoliolate with heart-shaped leaflets. It
proves quite hardy, and has several varieties.
GARDEN VARIETIES.—As well as the above there are many
beautiful garden hybrids, some of which in point of floral
colouring far outvie the parent forms. Included in the following
list are a few of the most beautiful kinds:—
Alba Victor. Alexandra. Beauty of Worcester. Belle of Woking.
Blue Gem. Duchess of Edinburgh. Edith Jackman. Fairy Queen. John
Gould Veitch. Lady Bovill. Lord Beaconsfield. Lucie Lemoine. Madame
Baron Veillard. Miss Bateman. Mrs. A. Jackman. Othello. Prince of
Wales. Rubella. Star of India. Stella. Venus Victrix. William
CLERODENDRON TRICHOTOMUM.—Japan, 1800. This is at once one
of the most beautiful and distinct of hardy shrubs. It is of stout,
nearly erect growth, 8 feet high, and nearly as much through, with
large, dark-green, ovate leaves, and deliciously fragrant white
flowers, with a purplish calyx, and which are at their best in
September. Thriving well in any light soil, being of vigorous
constitution, and extremely handsome of flower, are qualities which
combine to render this shrub one of particular importance in our
C. FOETIDUM, a native of China, is only hardy in southern and
seaside situations, where it forms a bush 5 feet high, with
heart-shaped leaves, and large clusters of rosy-pink flowers.
CLETHRA ACUMINATA.—Pointed-leaved Pepper Tree. Carolina,
1806. This is not so hardy as C. alnifolia, hailing from the
Southern States of North America, but with a little protection is
able to do battle with our average English winter. It resembles C.
alnifolia, except in the leaves, which are sharp pointed, and like
that species delights to grow in damp positions. The flowers are
white and drooping, and the growth more robust than is that of C.
alnifolia generally. For planting by the pond or lake-side, the
Pepper Trees are almost invaluable.
C. ALNIFOLIA.—Alder-leaved Pepper Tree. North America,
1831. A rather stiff-growing shrub of about 5 feet in height, with
leaves resembling those of our common Alder, and bearing towards
the end of July spikes of almost oppressively fragrant dull-white
flowers at the tips of the branches. It is a valuable shrub, not
only in an ornamental way, but on account of it thriving in damp,
swampy ground, where few others could exist, while at the same time
it will succeed and flower freely in almost any good garden
COCCULUS CAROLINUS.—This is a half hardy, twining shrub,
of free growth when planted by a tree stem in a sheltered wood, but
with by no means showy flowers; indeed, it may be described in few
words as a shrub of no great beauty nor value.
C. LAURIFOLIUS, from the Himalayas and Japan, is even less hardy
than the above, although, used as a wall plant, it has survived for
many years in the south and west of England. The foliage of this
species is neat and ornamental, but liable to injury from cold
COLLETIA CRUCIATA (syn C. bictonensis).—Chili,
1824. With flattened woody branches, and sharp-pointed spines which
take the place of leaves, this is at once one of the most singular
of hardy flowering shrubs. It forms a stout dense bush about 4 feet
high, and bears quantities of small white flowers, which render the
plant one of great beauty during the summer months.
C. SPINOSA.—Peru, 1823. This species grows fairly well in
some parts of England and Ireland, and is a curious shrub with
awl-shaped leaves, and, like the other members of the family, an
abundant producer of flowers. It thrives best as a wall plant, and
when favourably situated a height of 12 feet is sometimes
COLUTEA ARBORESCENS.—Bladder Senna. France, 1548. This is
a common plant in English gardens, bearing yellow Pea-shaped
flowers, that are succeeded by curious reddish bladder-like seed
pods. It grows to 10 feet or 12 feet in height, and is usually of
lax and slender growth, but perfectly hardy.
C. CRUENTA (syn C. orientalis and C.
sanguine).—Oriental Bladder Senna. Levant, 1710. This is
a free-growing, round-headed, deciduous bush, of from 6 feet to 8
feet high when fully grown. The leaves are pinnate and glaucous,
smooth, and bright green above, and downy beneath. Flowers
individually large, of a reddish-copper colour, with a yellow spot
at the base of the upper petal. The fruit is an inflated
boat-shaped reddish pod. The Bladder Sennas are of very free
growth, even in poor, sandy soil, and being highly ornamental,
whether in flower or fruit, are to be recommended for extensive
CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA.—South Europe, 1629. A deciduous shrub
growing to about 4 feet in height, with Myrtle-like leaves, and
upright terminal racemes of not very showy flowers, produced about
mid-summer—generally from May to August. For its pretty
foliage and the frond-like arrangement of its branches it is
principally worthy of culture. From southern Europe and the north
of Africa, where it is an occupant of waste ground and hedges, but
still rare in our gardens.
CORNUS ALBA.—White-fruited Dogwood. Siberia, 1741. This is
a native of northern Asia and Siberia, not of America as Loudon
stated. For the slender, red-barked branches and white or creamy
flowers, this species is well worthy of notice, while the white
fruit renders it very distinct and effective. It grows to about 10
feet in height. C. alba Spathi is one of the most ornamental of
shrubs bearing coloured leaves, these in spring being of a
beautiful bronzy tint, and changing towards summer to a mixture of
gold and green, or rather an irregular margin of deep gold
surrounds each leaf. It was first sent out by the famous Berlin
nurseryman whose name it bears. C. alba Gouchaulti is another
variegated leaved variety, but has no particular merit, and
originated in one of the French nurseries.
C. ALTERNIFOLIA.—North America, 1760. This species is a
lover of damp ground, and grows from 20 feet to nearly 30 feet
high, with clusters of pale yellow flowers, succeeded by
bluish-black berries that render the plant highly ornamental. It is
still rare in British gardens.
C. AMOMUM (syn C. sericea).—From the eastern United
States. It is a low-growing, damp-loving shrub, with
yellowish-white flowers, borne abundantly in small clusters. It
grows about 8 feet in height, and has a graceful habit, owing to
the long and lithe branches spreading regularly over the ground.
The fruit is pale blue, and the bark a conspicuous purple.
C. ASPERIFOLIA is another showy American species, with
reddish-brown bark, hairy leaves, of small size, and rather small
flowers that are succeeded by pearly-white berries borne on
conspicuous reddish stalks.
C. BAILEYI resembles somewhat the better-known C. stolonifera,
but it is of more erect habit, is not stoloniferous, has rather
woolly leaves, at least on the under side, and bears
yellowish-white fruit. It grows in sandy soil, and is a native of
C. CALIFORNICA (syn C. pubescens) grows fully 10 feet
high, with smooth branches, hairy branchlets, and cymes of pretty
white flowers, succeeded by white fruit. It occurs from southern
California to British Columbia.
C. CANADENSIS.—Dwarf Cornel or Birchberry. Canada, 1774.
This is of herbaceous growth, and remarkable for the large
cream-coloured flower bracts, and showy red fruit.
C. CANDIDISSIMA (syn C. paniculata) is a beautiful
American species, with panicled clusters of almost pure white
flowers, that are succeeded by pale blue fruit. It is a small
growing tree, with narrow, pointed leaves, and greyish coloured,
smooth bark. Like many of its fellows, this species likes rather
C. CIRCINATA, from the eastern United States, is readily
distinguished by its large, round leaves, these sometimes measuring
6 inches long by 3-1/2 inches wide. The yellowish-white flowers are
individually small, and succeeded by bright blue fruits, each as
large as a pea.
C. CAPITATA (syn Benthamia fragifera).—Nepaul,
1825. An evergreen shrub, with oblong, light green leaves and
terminal inconspicuous greenish flowers, surrounded by an involucre
of four large, pinky-yellow bracts. It is this latter that renders
the shrub so very conspicuous when in full flower. Unfortunately,
the Benthamia is not hardy throughout the country, the south and
west of England, especially Cornwall, and the southern parts of
Ireland being the favoured spots where this handsome shrub or small
growing tree—for in Cornwall it has attained to fully 45 feet
in height, and in Cork nearly 30 feet—may be found in a
really thriving condition. Around London it does well enough for a
time, but with severe frost it gets cut back to the ground, and
though it quickly recovers and grows rapidly afterwards, before it
is large enough to flower freely it usually suffers again. The
fruits are as large and resemble Strawberries, and of a rich
scarlet or reddish hue, and though ripe in October they frequently
remain on the trees throughout the winter. Both for its flowers and
fruit, this Nepaul shrub-tree is well worthy of a great amount of
trouble to get it established in a cosy corner of the garden. Rich,
well-drained loam is all it wants, while propagation by seed is
C. FLORIDA, the Florida Dogwood, is not always very satisfactory
when grown in this country, our climate in some way or other being
unsuitable for its perfect development. It is a handsome shrub or
small-growing tree, with small flowers surrounded by a large and
conspicuous white involucre. The leaves are ovate-oblong, and
pubescent on the undersides. It is a valuable as well as ornamental
little tree, and is worthy of a great amount of coddling and
coaxing to get it established.
C. KOUSA (syn Benthamia japonica).—Japan. This is a
very distinct and beautiful flowering shrub. Flowers very small
individually, but borne in large clusters, and yellow, the showy
part being the four large, pure white bracts which subtend each
cluster of blossoms, much like those in Cornus florida, only the
bracts are more pointed than those of the latter species. Being
quite hardy, and a plant of great interest and beauty, this little
known Cornus is sure to be widely planted when better known.
C. MACROPHYLLA (syn C. brachypoda).—Himalayas,
China and Japan, 1827. This is an exceedingly handsome species, of
tabulated appearance, occasioned by the branches being arranged
almost horizontally. The leaves are of large size, elliptic-ovate,
and are remarkable for their autumnal tints. The elder-like flowers
appear in June. They are pure white and arranged in large cymes. C.
macrophylla variegata is a distinct and very ornamental form of the
above, in which the leaf margins are bordered with white.
C. MAS.—Cornelian Cherry. Austria, 1596. One of our
earliest flowering trees, the clusters of yellow blooms being
produced in mild seasons by the middle of February. It is not at
all fastidious about soil, thriving well in that of very opposite
description. It deserves to be extensively cultivated, if only for
the profusion of brightly-tinted flowers, which completely cover
the shoots before the leaves have appeared. C. Mas
aurea-elegantissima, the tricolor-leaved Dogwood, is a strikingly
ornamental shrub, with green leaves encircled with a golden band,
the whole being suffused with a faint pinky tinge. It is of more
slender growth than the species, and a very desirable acquisition
to any collection of hardy ornamental shrubs. C. Mas
argenteo-variegata is another pretty shrub, the leaves being
margined with clear white.
C. NUTTALLII grows to fully 50 feet in height, and is one of the
most beautiful of the Oregon and Californian forest trees. The
flower bracts are of large size, often 6 inches across, the
individual bracts being broad and white, and fully 2-1/2 inches
C. OFFICINALIS is a Japanese species, that is, however, quite
hardy in this country, and nearly resembles the better known C.
Mas, but from which it may at once be known by the tufts of
brownish hairs that are present in the axils of the principal leaf
C. STOLONIFERA.—Red Osier Dogwood. North America, 1741.
This has rather inconspicuous flowers, that are succeeded by
whitish fruit, and is of greatest value for the ruddy tint of the
young shoots. It grows fully 6 feet high, and increases rapidly by
underground suckers. The species is quite hardy.
C. TARTARICA (syn C. siberica).—Siberia, 1824. This
has much brighter coloured bark, and is of neater and dwarfer
habit, than the typical C. alba. It is a very beautiful and
valuable shrub, of which there is a variegated leaved form.
COROKIA COTONEASTER.—New Zealand, 1876. A curious,
dwarf-growing shrub, with small, bright yellow, starry flowers
produced in June. The hardiness of the shrub is rather
CORONILLA EMERUS.—Scorpion Senna. France, 1596. This
shrub, a native of the middle and southern parts of Europe, forms
an elegant loose bush about 5 feet high, with smooth, pinnate,
sub-evergreen leaves, and Pea-shaped flowers, that are reddish in
the bud state, but bright yellow when fully expanded. It is an
elegant plant, and on account of its bearing hard cutting back, is
well suited for ornamental hedge formation; but however used the
effect is good, the distinct foliage and showy flowers making it a
general favourite with planters. It will thrive in very poor soil,
but prefers a light rich loam.
CORYLOPSIS HIMALAYANA.—E. Himalayas, 1879. This is a
stronger growing species than C. pauciflora and C. spicata, with
large leaves averaging 4 inches long, that are light green above
and silky on the under sides. The parallel veins of the leaves are
very pronounced, while the leaf-stalks, as indeed the young twigs
too, are covered with a hairy pubescence.
C. PAUCIFLORA is readily distinguished from the former by its
more slender growth, smaller leaves, and fewer flowered spikes.
C. SPICATA.—Japan, 1864. This Japanese shrub is of very
distinct appearance, having leaves like those of our common Hazel,
and drooping spikes of showy-yellowish, fragrant flowers that are
produced before the leaves. There is a variegated form in
The various species of Corylopsis are very ornamental garden
plants, and to be recommended, on account of their early flowering,
for prominent positions in the shrubbery or by the woodland walk.
Light, rich loam seems to suit them well.
CORYLUS AVELLANA PURPUREA.—Purple Hazel. This has large
leaves of a rich purple colour, resembling those of the purple
Beech, and is a very distinct plant for the shrubbery border.
Should be cut down annually if large leaves are desired.
C. COLURNA.—Constantinople Hazel. Turkey, 1665. This is
the largest and most ornamental of the family, and is mentioned
here on account of the showy catkins with which the tree is usually
well supplied. When thickly produced, as they usually are on
established specimens, these long catkins have a most effective and
pleasing appearance, and tend to render the tree one of the most
distinct in cultivation. Under favourable circumstances, such as
when growing in a sweet and rather rich brown loam, it attains to
fully 60 feet in height, and of a neat shape, from the branches
being arranged horizontally, or nearly so. Even in a young state
the Constantinople Hazel is readily distinguished from the common
English species, by the softer and more angular leaves, and by the
whitish bark which comes off in long strips. The stipules, too,
form an unerring guide to its identity, they being long, linear,
COTONEASTER BACILLARIS.—Nepaul, 1841. A large-growing
species, and one of the few members of the family that is more
ornamental in flower than in fruit. It is of bold, portly, upright
growth, and sends up shoots from the base of the plant. The pretty
white flowers are borne in clusters for some distance along the
slender shoots, and have a very effective and pleasing appearance;
indeed, the upper portion of the plant has the appearance of a mass
of white blossoms.
C. FRIGIDA.—Nepaul, 1824. The species forms a large shrub
or low tree with oblong, elliptical, sub-evergreen leaves. The
flowers are white and borne in large corymbs, which are followed by
scarlet berries in September.
C. MICROPHYLLA.—Small-leaved Cotoneaster. Nepaul, 1825.
This is, from a flowering point of view, probably the most useful
of any member of this rather large genus. Its numerous pretty white
flowers, dark, almost Yew-green leaves, and abundance of the
showiest red berries in winter, will ever make this dwarf,
clambering plant a favourite with those who are at all interested
in beautiful shrubs. All, or nearly all, the species of Cotoneaster
are remarkable and highly valued for their showy berries, but,
except the above, and perhaps C. buxifolia (Box-leaved
Cotoneaster), few others are worthy of consideration from a purely
flowering point of view.
C. SIMONSII.—Khasia, 1868. The stems of this species
usually grow from 4 feet to 6 feet high, with sub-erect habit. The
leaves are roundly-elliptic and slightly silky beneath. The small
flowers are succeeded by a profusion of scarlet berries that ripen
in autumn. This is generally considered the best for garden
CRATAEGUS AZAROLUS.—South Europe, 1640. This is a very
vigorous-growing species, with a wide, spreading head of rather
upright-growing branches. The flowers are showy and the fruit large
and of a pleasing red colour.
C. AZAROLUS ARONIA (syn C. Aronia).—Aronia Thorn.
South Europe, 1810. This tree attains to a height of 20 feet, has
deeply lobed leaves that are wedge-shaped at the base, and slightly
pubescent on the under sides. The flowers, which usually are at
their best in June, are white and showy, and succeeded by large
yellow fruit. Generally the Aronia Thorn forms a rather upright and
branchy specimen of neat proportions, and when studded with its
milk-white flowers may be included amongst the most distinct and
ornamental of the family.
C. COCCINEA.—Scarlet-fruited Thorn. North America, 1683.
If only for its lovely white flowers, with bright, pinky anthers,
it is well worthy of a place even in a selection of ornamental
flowering trees and shrubs. It is, however, rendered doubly
valuable in that the cordate-ovate leaves turn of a warm brick
colour in the autumn, while the fruit, and which is usually
produced abundantly, is of the brightest red.
C. COCCINEA MACRANTHA.—North America, 1819. This bears
some resemblance to the Cockspur Thorn, but has very long, curved
spines—longer, perhaps, than those of any other species.
C. CORDATA is one of the latest flowering species, in which
respect it is even more hardy than the well-known C.
tanace-tifolia. It forms a small compact tree, of neat and regular
outline, with dark green shining leaves, and berries about the same
size as those of the common species, and deep red.
C. CRUS-GALLI.—Cockspur Thorn. North America, 1691. This
has large and showy white flowers that are succeeded by deep red
berries. It is readily distinguished by the long, curved spines
with which the whole tree is beset. Of this species there are
numerous worthy forms, including C. Crus-galli Carrierii, which
opens at first white, and then turns a showy flesh colour; C.
Crus-galli Layi, C. Crus-galli splendens, C. Crus-galli prunifolia,
C. Crus-galli pyracanthifolia, and C. Crus-galli salicifolia, all
forms of great beauty—whether for their foliage, or beautiful
and usually plentifully-produced flowers.
C. DOUGLASII.—North America, 1830. This is peculiar in
having dark purple or almost black fruit. It is of stout growth,
often reaching to 20 feet in height, and belongs to the
C. NIGRA (syn C. Celsiana).—A tree 20 feet high,
with stout branches, and downy, spineless shoots. Leaves large,
ovate-acute, deeply incised, glossy green above and downy beneath.
Flowers large and fragrant, pure white, and produced in close heads
in June. Fruit large, oval, downy, and yellow when fully ripe. A
native of Sicily, and known under the names of C. incisa and C.
Leeana. This species must not be confused with a variety of our
common Thorn bearing a similar name.
C. OXYACANTHA.—Common Hawthorn. This is, perhaps, the most
ornamental species in cultivation, and certainly the commonest. The
common wild species needs no description, the fragrant flowers
varying in colour from pure white to pink, being produced in the
richest profusion. Under cultivation, however, it has produced some
very distinct and desirable forms, far superior to the parent,
including amongst others those with double-white, pink, and scarlet
C. OXYACANTHA PUNICEA flore-pleno (Paul’s double-scarlet Thorn),
is one of, if not the handsomest variety, with large double flowers
that are of the richest crimson. Other good flowering kinds include
C. Oxyacantha praecox (Glastonbury Thorn); C. Oxyacantha
Oliveriana; C. Oxyacantha punicea, with deep scarlet flowers; C.
Oxyacantha rosea, rose-coloured and abundantly-produced flowers; C.
Oxyacantha foliis aureis, with yellow fruit; C. Oxyacantha
laciniata, cut leaves; C. Oxyacantha multiplex, double-white
flowers; C. Oxyacantha foliis argenteis, having silvery-variegated
leaves: C. Oxyacantha pendula, of semi-weeping habit; C. Oxyacantha
stricta, with an upright and stiff habit of growth; C. Oxyacantha
Leeana, a good form; and C. Oxyacantha leucocarpa.
C. PARVIFOLIA.—North America, 1704. This is a miniature
Thorn, of slow growth, with leaves about an inch long, and solitary
pure-white flowers of large size. The flowers open late in the
season, and are succeeded by yellowish-green fruit.
C. PYRACANTHA.—Fiery Thorn. South Europe, 1629. This is a
very distinct species, with lanceolate serrated leaves, and pinkish
or nearly white flowers. The berries of this species are, however,
the principal attraction, being orange-scarlet, and produced in
dense clusters. C. Pyracantha crenulata and C. Pyracantha Lelandi
are worthy varieties of the above, the latter especially being one
of the most ornamental-berried shrubs in cultivation.
C. TANACETIFOLIA.—Tansy-leaved Thorn. Greece, 1789. This
is a very late-flowering species, and remarkable for its Tansy-like
foliage. It is of unusually free growth, and in almost any class of
soil, and is undoubtedly, in so far at least as neatly divided
leaves and wealth of fruit are concerned, one of the most distinct
and desirable species of Thorn.
Other good species and varieties that may just be mentioned as
being worthy of cultivation are C. apiifolia, C. Crus-galli
horrida, C. orientalis, and C. tomentosum (syn C. punctata).
To a lesser or greater extent, the various species and varieties of
Thorn are of great value for the wealth and beauty of flowers they
produce, but the above are, perhaps, the most desirable in that
particular respect. They are all of free growth, and, except in
waterlogged soils, thrive well and flower freely.
CYTISUS ALBUS.—White Spanish Broom. Portugal, 1752. This
is a large-growing shrub of often 10 feet in height, with wiry,
somewhat straggling branches, and remarkable for the wealth of
pure-white flowers it produces. In May and June, if favourably
situated, every branch is wreathed with small white flowers, and
often to such an extent that at a short distance away the plant
looks like a sheet of white. Being perfectly hardy and of very free
growth in any light soil, and abundantly floriferous, this handsome
shrub is one of particular value in ornamental planting. By placing
three or five plants in clump-fashion, the beauty of this Broom is
C. ALDUS INCARNATUS (syn C. incarnatus) resembles C.
purpureus in its leaves and general appearance, but it is of larger
growth. The flowers, which are at their best in May, are of a
vinous-rose colour, and produced plentifully.
C. BIFLORUS (syn C. elongatus).—Hungary, 1804. This
is a dwarf, spreading, twiggy bush, of fully a yard high. Leaves
trifoliolate, clothed beneath with closely adpressed hairs, and
bright yellow, somewhat tubular flowers, usually produced in
C. DECUMBENS.—A charming alpine species, of low, spreading
growth, bright-green three-parted leaves, and bearing axillary
bunches of large yellow, brownish-purple tinted flowers. A native
of the French and Italian Alps, and quite hardy.
C. NIGRICANS.—Austria, 1730. Another beautiful species,
with long, erect racemes of golden-yellow flowers, and one whose
general hardihood is undoubted. On its own roots, and allowed to
roam at will, this pretty, small-growing Broom is of far greater
interest than when it is grafted mop-high on a Laburnum stem, and
pruned into artificial shapes, as is, unfortunately, too often the
C. PURPUREUS.—Purple Broom. Austria, 1792. Alow, spreading
shrub, with long wiry shoots, clothed with neat trifoliolate
leaves, and bearing an abundance of its purple, Pea-shaped flowers.
There is a white-flowered form, C. purpureus albus, and another
named C. purpureus ratis-bonensis, with pretty yellow flowers,
produced on long and slender shoots.
C. SCOPARIUS.—Yellow Broom. This is a well-known native
shrub, with silky, angular branches, and bright yellow flowers in
summer. There are several varieties, but the most remarkable and
handsome is C. scoparius Andreanus, in which the wings of the
flowers are of a rich golden brown. It is one of the showiest
shrubs in cultivation.
For ornamental planting the above are about the best forms of
Broom, but others might include C. austriacus, C. Ardoini, and C.
capitatus, the latter being unusually hardy, and bearing dense
heads of flowers. In so far as soil is concerned, the Brooms are
readily accommodated, while either from seeds or cuttings they are