Garden and Forest – vol 1 no. 1 The Forest The White Pine in Europe


Volume 1, Number 1



The Forest:

The White Pine in Europe.

THE White Pine was among the very first American trees which came to Europe, being planted in the year 1705 by Lord Weymouth on his grounds in Chelsea. From that date, the tree has been cultivated in Europe under the name of Weymouth Pine; in some mountain districts of northern Bavaria, where it has become a real forest tree, it is called Strobe, after the Latin name Pinus strobus. After general cultivation as an ornamental tree in parks this Pine began to be used in the forests on account of its hardiness and rapid growth, and it is now not only scattered through most of the forests of Europe, but covers in Germany alone an area of some 300 acres in a dense, pure forest. Some of these are groves 120 years old, and they yield a large proportion of the seed demanded by the increasing cultivation of the tree in Europe.

The White Pine has proved so valuable as a forest tree that it has partly overcome the prejudices which every foreign tree has to fight against. The tree is perfectly hardy, is not injured by long and severe freezing in winter, nor by untimely frosts in spring or autumn, which sometimes do great harm to native trees in Europe. On account of the softness of the leaves and the bark, it is much damaged by the nibbling of deer, but it heals quickly and throws up a new leader.

The young plant can endure being partly shaded by other trees far better than any other Pine tree, and even seems to enjoy being closely surrounded, a quality that makes it valuable for filling up in young forests where the native trees, on account of their slow growth, could not be brought up at all.

The White Pine is not so easily broken by heavy snowfall as the Scotch Pine, on account of the greater elasticity of its wood. The great abundance of soft needles falling from it every year better fits it for improving a worn-out soil than any European Pine, therefore the tree has been tried with success as a nurse for the ground in forest plantations of Oak, when the latter begin to be thinned out by nature, and grass is growing underneath them.

And finally, all observations agree that the White Pine is a faster growing tree than any native Conifer in Europe, except, perhaps, the Larch. The exact facts about that point, taken from investigations on good soil in various parts of Germany, are as follows:

Years. Height. Annual Growth During Last Decade.
The White Pine at 20 reaches 7.5 meters. 37 centimeters
                “ 30      “ 12.5    “ 50        “
                “ 40      “ 18.5    “ 60        “
                “ 50      “ 22.5    “ 40        “
                “ 60      “ 26.5    “ 40        “
                “ 70      “ 28.5    “ 20        “
                “ 80      “ 30.0    “ 15        “
                “ 90      “ 32.0    “ 20        “

For comparison I add here the average growth on good soil, of the Scotch Pine, one of the most valuable and widely distributed timber trees of Europe.

Years. Height. Annual Growth During Last Decade.
The Scotch Pine at   20 reaches 7.3 meters. 36.5 centimeters
                “   30      “ 11.6    “ 43.0        “
                “   40      “ 15.7    “ 41.0        “
                “   50      “ 19.4    “ 37.0        “
                “   60      “ 22.1    “ 27.0        “
                “   70      “ 24.0    “ 22.0        “
                “   80      “ 26.0    “ 17.0        “
                “   90      “ 27.5    “ 15.0        “
                “ 100      “ 28.5    “ 10.0        “
                “ 120      “ 30.0    “   7.5        “

That is, the White Pine is ahead of its relative during its entire life and attains at 80 years a height which the Scotch Pine only reaches in 120 years. It appears then that the whole volume of wood formed within a certain period by an acre of White Pine forest is greater than that yielded by a forest of Scotch Pine within the same period.

As far as reliable researches show, a forest of White Pine when seventy years old gives an annual increment of 3 cords of wood per acre. On the same area a forest of Scotch Pine increases every year by 2.4 cords on the best soil, 2 cords on medium soil, and 1.5 cords on poor soil.

But notwithstanding the splendid qualities which distinguish the White Pine as a forest tree its wood has never been looked upon with favor in Europe. Many of those who are cultivating the White Pine for business seem to expect that they will raise a heavy and durable wood. These are the qualities prized in their own timber trees, and they seem to think that the White Pine must be so highly prized at home for the same qualities, when in fact it is the lightness and softness of the wood which are considered in America. It would seem also that some European planters believe that a Pine tree exists which will yield more and at the same time heavier wood than any other tree on the same area. It is a general rule that the amount of woody substance annually formed on the same soil does not vary in any great degree with the different kinds of trees. For instance, if we have good soil we may raise 2,200 lbs. per acre of woody substance every year, from almost any kind of timber tree. If we plant a tree forming a wood of low specific gravity, we get a large volume of wood, and this is the case with the White Pine. If we plant on the same ground an Oak tree, we will get small volume of wood, but the weight of the woody substance will be the same, that is, 2,200 pounds of absolutely dried wood per acre.

It is remarkable that there is hardly any difference in the specific gravity of the wood of the White Pine grown in Europe and in its native country. I collected in Central Wisconsin wood-sections of a tall tree and compared the specific gravity with the wood of a full-grown tree of White Pine from a Bavarian forest. The average specific gravity of the Bavarian tree was 38.3. The average specific gravity of the American tree was 38.9. In both trees the specific gravity slightly increased from the base to the top. Professor Sargent gives 38 as the result of his numerous and careful investigations.

I was much surprised that the thickness of the sap-wood varied much in favor of the Bavarian tree.

The sap-wood measured in thickness:

Of the Bavarian tree. Of the American tree.
At the base 2.7 centimeters 9 centimeters.
In the middle   .4         “ 6         “
Within the crown   .3         “ 4         “

I am inclined to believe that on account of the generally drier climate of America a greater amount of water, and, therefore, of water-conducting sap-wood, is necessary to keep the balance between the evaporation and transportation of the water. The wood of the White Pine is certainly better fitted for many purposes than any tree with which nature has provided Europe, and yet one can hardly expect it to easily overcome fixed habits and prejudices. It will devolve upon the more intelligent proprietors of wood-land in Europe to begin with the plantation of the White Pine on a large scale. No Conifer in Europe can be cultivated with so little care and risk as the White Pine; the frost does not injure the young plant, and the numerous insects invading the European trees during their whole life-time inflict but little harm. Subterranean parasites are thinning out the plantations to some extent, but in no dangerous way.

H. Mayr.

Tokio, Japan.

Abies amabilis.—Professor John Macoun detected this species during the past summer upon many of the mountains of Vancouver’s Island where with Tsuga Pattoniana it is common above 3,000 feet over the sea level. The northern distribution of this species as well as some other British Columbia trees is still a matter of conjecture. It has not been noticed north of the Fraser River, but it is not improbable that Abies amabilis will be found to extend far to the north along some of the mountain ranges of the north-west coast.

Garden and Forest – vol 1 no. 1 Entomology Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard


Volume 1, Number 1




Arsenical Poisons in the Orchard.

AS is well known, about fifty per cent. of the possible apple crop in the Western states is sacrificed each year to the codling moth, except in sections where orchardists combine to apply bands of straw around the trunks. But as is equally well known this is rather a troublesome remedy. At all events, in Illinois, Professor Forbes, in a bulletin lately issued from the office of the State Entomologist of Illinois, claims that the farmers of that state suffer an annual loss from the attacks of this single kind of insect of some two and three-quarters millions of dollars.

As the results of two years’ experiments in spraying the trees with a solution of Paris green, only once or twice in early spring, before the young apples had drooped upon their stems, there was a saving of about seventy-five per cent. of the apples.

The Paris green mixture consisted of three-fourths of an ounce of the powder by weight, of a strength to contain 15.4 per cent. of metallic arsenic, simply stirred up in two and a half gallons of water. The tree was thoroughly sprayed with a hand force-pump, and with the deflector spray and solid jet-hose nozzle, manufactured in Lowell, Mass. The fluid was thrown in a fine mist-like spray, applied until the leaves began to drip.

The trees were sprayed in May and early in June while the apples were still very small. It seems to be of little use to employ this remedy later in the season, when later broods of the moth appear, since the poison takes effect only in case it reaches the surface of the apple between the lobes of the calyx, and it can only reach this place when the apple is very small and stands upright on its stem, It should be added that spraying “after the apples have begun to hang downward is unquestionably dangerous,” since even heavy winds and violent rains are not sufficient to remove the poison from the fruit at this season.

At the New York Experimental station last year a certain number of trees were sprayed three times with Paris green with the result that sixty-nine per cent. of the apples were saved.

It also seems that last year about half the damage that might have been done by the Plum weevil or curculio was prevented by the use of Paris green, which should be sprayed on the trees both early in the season, while the fruit is small, as well as later.

The cost of this Paris green application, when made on a large scale, with suitable apparatus, only once or twice a year, must, says Mr. Forbes, fall below an average of ten cents a tree.

The use of solutions of Paris green or of London purple in water, applied by spraying machines such as were invented and described in the reports of the national Department of Agriculture by the U. S. Entomologist and his assistants, have effected a revolution in remedies against orchard and forest insects. We expect to see them, in careful hands, tried with equal success in shrubberies, lawns and flower gardens.

A. S. Packard.

Garden and Forest – vol 1 no. 1 Editorial Timely Hints about Bulbs


Volume 1, Number 1



Timely Hints About Bulbs.


SPRING flowering bulbs in-doors, such as the Dutch Hyacinths, Tulips and the many varieties of Narcissus, should now be coming rapidly into bloom. Some care is required to get well developed specimens. When first brought in from cold frames or wherever they have been stored to make roots, do not expose them either to direct sunlight or excessive heat.

A temperature of not more than fifty-five degrees at night is warm enough for the first ten days, and afterwards, if they show signs of vigorous growth and are required for any particular occasion, they may be kept ten degrees warmer. It is more important that they be not exposed to too much light than to too much heat.

Half the short stemmed Tulips, dumpy Hyacinths and blind Narcissus we see in the green-houses and windows of amateurs are the result of excessive light when first brought into warm quarters. Where it is not possible to shade bulbs without interfering with other plants a simple and effective plan is to make funnels of paper large enough to stand inside each pot and six inches high. These may be left on the pots night and day from the time the plants are brought in until the flower spike has grown above the foliage; indeed, some of the very finest Hyacinths cannot be had in perfection without some such treatment. Bulbous plants should never suffer for water when growing rapidly, yet on the other hand, they are easily ruined if allowed to become sodden.

When in flower a rather dry and cool temperature will preserve them the longest.

Of bulbs which flower in the summer and fall, Gloxinias and tuberous rooted Begonias are great favorites and easily managed. For early summer a few of each should be started at once—using sandy, friable soil. Six-inch pots, well drained, are large enough for the very largest bulbs, while for smaller even three-inch pots will answer. In a green-house there is no difficulty in finding just the place to start them. It must be snug, rather shady and not too warm. They can be well cared for, however, in a hot-bed or even a window, but some experience is necessary to make a success.

Lilies, in pots, whether L. candidum or L. longiflorum that are desired to be in flower by Easter, should now receive every attention—their condition should be that the flower buds can be easily felt in the leaf heads. A temperature of fifty-five to sixty-five at night should be maintained, giving abundance of air on bright sunny days to keep them stocky. Green fly is very troublesome at this stage, and nothing is more certain to destroy this pest than to dip the plants in tobacco water which, to be effective, should be the color of strong tea. Occasional waterings of weak liquid manure will be of considerable help if the pots are full of roots.

J. Thorpe.

Garden and Forest – vol 1 no. 1 Editorial Two Ferns and Their Treatment


Volume 1, Number 1



Two Ferns and their Treatment.

Adiantum Farleyense.—This beautiful Maidenhair is supposed to be a subfertile, plumose form of A. tenerum, which much resembles it, especially in a young state. For decorative purposes it is almost unrivaled, whether used in pots or for trimming baskets of flowers or bouquets. It prefers a warm, moist house and delights in abundant water. We find it does best when potted firmly in a compost of two parts loam to one of peat, and with a good sprinkling of sifted coal ashes. In this compost it grows very strong, the fronds attaining a deeper green and lasting longer than when grown in peat. When the pots are filled with roots give weak liquid manure occasionally. This fern is propagated by dividing the roots and potting in small pots, which should be placed in the warmest house, where they soon make fine plants. Where it is grown expressly for cut fronds the best plan is to plant it out on a bench in about six inches of soil, taking care to give it plenty of water and heat, and it will grow like a weed.

Actiniopteris radiata.—A charming little fern standing in a genus by itself. In form it resembles a miniature fan palm, growing about six inches in height. It is generally distributed throughout the East Indies. In cultivation it is generally looked upon as poor grower, but with us it grows as freely as any fern we have. We grow a lot to mix in with Orchids, as they do not crowd at all. We pot in a compost of equal parts loam and peat with a few ashes to keep it open, and grow in the warmest house, giving at all times abundance of water both at root and overhead. It grows very freely from spores, and will make good specimens in less than a year. It is an excellent Fern for small baskets.

F. Goldring.