ACETARIA: A Discourse of Sallets – Appendix


Tho’ it was far from our firſt Intention to charge this ſmall Volume and Diſcourſe concerning Crude Sallets, with any of the following Receipts: Yet having ſince received them from an Experienc’d Houſewife; and that they may poſſibly be uſeful to correct, preſerve and improve our Acetaria, we have allow’d them Place as an Appendant Variety upon Occaſion: Nor account we it the leaſt Diſhonour to our former Treatiſe, that we kindly entertain’d them; ſince (beſides divers Learned Phyſicians, and ſuch as have ex profeſſo written de Re Cibaria) we have the Examples of many other Nobleand Illuſtrious Perſons both among the Ancient and Modern.

1. Artichoak. Clear it of the Leaves and cut the Bottoms in pretty thin Slices or Quarters; then fry them in freſh Butter with ſome Parſley, till it is criſp, and the Slices tender; and ſo diſh them with other freſh melted Butter.

How a Poiverade is made, and the Bottoms preſerv’d all the Winter

Aſhen-keys. See Pickle.

Aſparagus. See Pickle.

Beets. See Pickle.

Carrot. See Pudding.

Champignon. See Mushroom.

2. Cheſſnut. Roaſted under the Embers, or dry fryed, till they ſhell, and quit their Husks, may be ſlit; the Juice of Orange ſqueezed on a Lump of hard Sugar diſſolv’d; to which add ſome Claret Wine.

Collyflower. See Pickle.
Elder flowers.

Herbs. See Pudding and Tart.

Limon. See Pickle.

3. Muſhroom. Chuſe the ſmall, firm and white Buttons, growing upon ſweet Paſture Grounds, neither under, or about any Trees: ſtrip off the upper Skin, and pare away all the black ſpungy Bottom part; then ſlice them in quarters, and caſt them in Water a while to cleanſe: Then Boil them in freſh Water, and a little ſweet Butter; (ſome boil them a quarter of an hour firſt) and then taking them out, dry them in a Cloth, preſſing out the Water, and whilſt hot, add the Butter; and then boiling a full Hour (to exhauſt the Malignity) ſhift them in another clean Water, with Butter, as before till they become ſufficiently tender. Then being taken out, pour upon them as much ſtrong Mutton (or other) Broth as will cover them, with ſix Spoonfuls of White-Wine, twelve Cloves, as many Pepper-Corns, four ſmall young Onions, half an Handful of Perſly bound up with two or three Spriggs of Thyme, an Anchovy, Oyſters raw, or pickl’d; a little Salt, ſweet Butter; and ſo let them ſtew.


Prepared, and cleans’d as above, and caſt into Fountain-Water, to preſerve them from growing black; Boil them in freſh Water and Salt; and whilſt on the Fire, caſt in the Muſhrooms, letting them boil till they become tender: Then ſtew them leiſurely between two Diſhes (the Water being drained from them) in a third Part of White-Wine and Butter, a ſmall Bundle of ſweet Herbs at diſcretion. To theſe add Broth as before, with Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg, Anchovies (one is ſufficient) Oysters, &c. a ſmall Onion, with the green Stem chopt ſmall; and laſtly, ſome Mutton-Gravy, rubbing the Diſh gently with a Clove of Garlick, or ſome Rocombo Seeds in its ſtead. Some beat the Yolk of a freſh Egg with Vinegar, and Butter, and a little Pepper.

In France ſome (more compendiouſly being peel’d and prepared) caſt them into a Pipkin, where, with the Sweet Herbs, Spices, and an Onion they ſtew them in their own Juice, without any other Water or Liquor at all; and then taking out the Herbs and Onion, thicken it with a little Butter, and ſo eat them.

In Poiverade.

The large Muſhrooms well cleanſed, &c. being cut into quarters and ſtrewed with Pepper and Salt, are broil’d on the Grid-iron, and eaten with freſh Butter.

In Powder.

Being freſh gathered, cleans’d, &c. and cut in Pieces, ſtew them in Water and Salt; and being taken forth, dry them with a Cloth: Then putting them into an Earth-Glazed Pot, ſet them into the Oven after the Bread is drawn: Repeat this till they are perfectly dry; and reſerve them in Papers to crumble into what Sauce you pleaſe. For the reſt, ſee Pickle.

4. Muſtard. Procure the beſt and weightieſt Seed: caſt it into Water two or three times, till no more of the Husk ariſe: Then taking out the ſound (which will ſink to the Bottom) rub it very dry in warm courſe Cloths, ſhewing it alſo a little to the Fire in a Diſh or Pan. Then ſtamp it as ſmall as to paſs through a fine Tiffany Sieve: Then ſlice ſome Horſe-Radiſh and lay it to ſoak in ſtrong Vinegar, with a ſmall Lump of hard Sugar (which ſome leave out) to temper the Flower with, being drained from the Radiſh, and ſo pot it all in a Glaz’d Mug, with an Onion, and keep it well ſtop’d with a Cork upon a Bladder, which is the more cleanly: But this Receit is improv’d, if inſtead of Vinegar, Water only, or the Broth of powder’d Beef be made uſe of. And to ſome of this Muſtard adding Verjuice, Sugar, Claret-Wine, and Juice of Limon, you have an excellent Sauce to any ſort of Fleſh or Fiſh.

Note, that a Pint of good Seed is enough to make at one time, and to keep freſh a competent while. What part of it does not paſs the Sarſe, may be beaten again; and you may reſerve the Flower in a well cloſed Glaſs, and make freſh Muſtard when you pleaſe.

Naſturtium. Vide Pickle.

Orange. See Limon in Pickle.

5. Parſnip. Take the large Roots, boil them, and ſtrip the Skin: Then ſlit them long-ways into pretty thin Slices; Flower and fry them in freſh Butter till they look brown. The sauce is other ſweet Butter melted. Some ſtrow Sugar and Cinamon upon them. Thus you may accomodate other Roots.

There is made a Maſh or Pomate of this Root, being boiled very tender with a little freſh Cream; and being heated again, put to it ſome Butter, a little Sugar and Juice of Limon; diſh it upon Sippets; ſometimes a few Corinths are added.

Peny-royal. See Pudding.

6. Pickl’d

Artichoaks. See Acetaria, p. 5.

7. Aſhen-keys. Gather them young, and boil them in three or four Waters to extract the Bitterneſs; and when they feel tender, prepare a Syrup of ſharp White-Wine Vinegar, Sugar, and a little Water. Then boil them on a very quick Fire, and they will become of a green Colour, fit to be potted ſo ſoon as cold.

8. Aſparagus. Break off the hard Ends, and put them in White-Wine Vinegar and Salt, well covered with it; and ſo let them remain for ſix Weeks: Then taking them out, boil the Liquor or Pickle, and ſcum it carefully. If need be, renew the Vinegar and Salt; and when ’tis cold, pot them up again. Thus may one keep them the whole Year.

9. Beans. Take ſuch as are freſh, young, and approaching their full Growth. Put them into a ſtrong Brine of White-Wine Vinegar and Salt able to bear an Egg. Cover them very cloſe, and ſo will they be preſerved twelve Months: But a Month before you uſe them, take out what Quantity you think ſufficient for your ſpending a quarter of a Year (for ſo long the ſecond Pickle will keep them ſound) and boil them in a Skillet of freſh Water, till they begin to look green, as they ſoon will do. Then placing them one by one, (to drain upon a clean courſe Napkin) range them Row by Row in a Jarr, and cover them with Vinegar, and what Spice you pleaſe; ſome Weight being laid upon them to keep them under the Pickle. Thus you may preſerve French-Beans, Harico’s, &c. the whole Year about.

10. Broom-Buds and Pods. Make a ſtrong Pickle, as above; ſtir it very well, till the Salt be quite diſſolved, clearing off the Dregs and Scum. The next Day pour it from the Bottom; and having rubbed the Buds dry pot them up in a Pickle-Glaſs, which ſhould be frequently ſhaken, till they ſink under it, and keep it well ſtopt and covered.

Thus may you-pickle any other Buds. Or as follows:

11. Of Elder. Take the largeſt Buds, and boil them in a Skillet with Salt and Water, ſufficient only to ſcald them; and ſo (being taken off the Fire) let them remain covered till Green; and then pot them with Vinegar and Salt, which has had one Boil up to cleanſe it.

12. Collyflowers. Boil them till they fall in Pieces: Then with ſome of the Stalk, and worſt of the Flower, boil it in a part of the Liquor till pretty ſtrong: Then being taken off, ſtrain it; and when ſettled, clear it from the Bottom. Then with Dill, Groſs Pepper, a pretty Quantity of Salt, when cold, add as much Vinegar as will make it ſharp, and pour all upon the Collyflower; and ſo as to keep them from touching one another; which is prevented by putting Paper cloſe to them.

Cornelians are pickled like Olives.

13. Cowſlips. Pick very clean; to each Pound of Flowers allow about one Pound of Loaf Sugar, and one Pint of White-Wine Vinegar, which boil to a Syrup, and cover it ſcalding-hot. Thus you may pickleClove-gillyflowers, Elder, and other Flowers, which being eaten alone, make a very agreeable Salletine.

14. Cucumbers. Take the Gorkems, or ſmaller Cucumbers; put them into Rape-Vinegar, and boyl, and cover them ſo cloſe, as none of the Vapour may iſſue forth; and alſo let them ſtand till the next day: Then boil them in freſh White-Wine Vinegar, with large Mace, Nutmeg, Ginger, white Pepper, and a little Salt, (according to diſcretion) ſtraining the former Liquor from the Cucumbers; and ſo place them in a Jarr, or wide mouthed Glaſs, laying a litle Dill and Fennel between each Rank; and covering all with the freſh ſcalding-hot Pickle, keep all cloſe, and repeat it daily, till you find them ſufficiently green.

In the ſame ſort Cucumbers of the largeſt ſize, being peel’d and cut into thin Slices, are very delicate.


Wiping them clean, put them in a very ſtrong Brine of Water and Salt, to ſoak two or three Hours or longer, if you ſee Cause: Then range them in the Jarr or Barrellet with Herbs and Spice as uſual; and cover them with hot Liquor made of two parts Beer-Vinegar, and one of White-Wine Vinegar: Let all be very well cloſed. A Fortnight after ſcald the Pickle again, and repeat it, as above: Thus they will keep longer, and from being ſo ſoon ſharp, eat crimp and well taſted, tho’ not altogether ſo green. You may add a Walnut-Leaf, Hyſop, Coſtmary, &c. and as ſome do, ſtrow on them a little Powder of Roch-Allom,which makes them firm and eatable within a Month or ſix Weeks after.

Mango of Cucumbers.

Take the biggest Cucumbers (and moſt of the Mango ſize) that look green: Open them on the Top or Side; and ſcooping out the Seeds, ſupply their Place with a ſmall Clove of Garlick, or ſome RoccomboSeeds. Then put them into an Earthen Glazed Jarr, or wide-mouth’d Glaſs, with as much White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them. Boil them in the Vinegar with Pepper, Cloves, Mace, &c. and when off the Fire, as much Salt as will make a gentle Brine; and ſo pour all boyling-hot on the Cucumbers, covering them cloſe till the next Day. Then put them with a little Dill, and Pickle into a large Skillet; and giving them a Boyl or two, return them into the Veſſel again: And when all is cold, add a good Spoonful of the beſt Muſtard, keeping it from the Air, and ſo have you an excellent Mango. When you have occaſion to take any out, make uſe of a Spoon, and not your Fingers.

Elder. See Buds.

Flowers. See Cowſlips, and for other Flowers.

15. Limon. Take Slices of the thick Rind Limon, Boil and ſhift them in ſeveral Waters, till they are pretty tender: Then drain and wipe them dry with a clean Cloth; and make a Pickle with a little White-Wine Vinegar, one part to two of fair Water, and a little Sugar, carefully ſcum’d. When all is cold, pour it on the peel’d Rind, and cover it all cloſe in a convenient Glaſs Jarr. Some make a Syrup of Vinegar, White-Wine and Sugar not too thick, and pour it on hot.

16. Melon. The abortive and after-Fruit of Melons being pickled as Cucumber, make an excellent Sallet.

17. Muſhrom. Take a Quart of the beſt White-Wine Vinegar; as much of White-Wine, Cloves, Mace, Nutmeg a pretty Quantity, beaten together: Let the Spice boil therein to the Conſumption of half; then taken off, and being cold, pour the Liquour on the Muſhroms; but leave out the boiled Spice, and caſt in of the ſame ſort of Spice whole, the Nutmeg only ſlit in Quarters, with ſome Limon-Peel, white Pepper; and if you pleaſe a whole raw Onion, which take out again when it begins to periſh.

The Muſhroms peel’d, &c. throw them into Water, and then into a Sauce-Pan, with ſome long Pepper, Cloves, Mace, a quarter’d Nutmeg, with an Onion, Shallot, or Roccombo-Seed, and a little Salt. Let them all boil a quarter of an hour on a very quick Fire: Then take out and cold, with a pretty Quantity of the former Spice, boil them in ſome White-Wine; which (being cold) caſt upon the Muſhroms, and fill up the Pot with the beſt White-Wine, a Bay-Leaf or two, and an Handful of Salt: Then cover them with the Liquor; and if for long keeping, pour Sallet-Oil over all, tho’ they will be preſerved a Year without it.

They are ſometimes boil’d in Salt and Water, with ſome Milk, and laying them in the Colender to drain, till cold, and wiped dry, caſt them into the Pickle with the White-Wine, Vinegar and Salt, grated Nutmeg, Ginger bruiſed, Cloves, Mace, white Pepper and Limon-Peel; pour the Liquor on them cold without boiling.

18. Naſturtium Indicum. Gather the Buds before they open to flower; lay them in the Shade three or four Hours, and putting them into an Earthen Glazed Veſſel, pour good Vinegar on them, and cover it with a Board. Thus letting it ſtand for eight or ten Days: Then being taken out, and gently preſs’d, caſt them into freſh Vinegar, and let them ſo remain as long as before. Repeat this a third time, and Barrel them up with Vinegar and a little Salt.

Orange. See Limon.

20. Potato. The ſmall green Fruit (when about the ſize of the Wild Cherry) being pickled, is an agreeable Sallet. But the Root being roaſted under the Embers, or otherwiſe, open’d with a Knife, the Pulp is butter’d in the Skin, of which it will take up a good Quantity, and is ſeaſoned with a little Salt and Pepper. Some eat them with Sugar together in the Skin, which has a pleaſant Crimpneſs. They are alſo ſtew’d and bak’d in Pyes, &c.

21. Purſelan. Lay the Stalks in an Earthen Pan; then cover them with Beer-Vinegar and Water, keeping them down with a competent Weight to imbibe, three Days: Being taken out, put them into a Pot with as much White-Wine Vinegar as will cover them again; and cloſe the Lid with Paſte to keep in the Steam: Then ſet them on the Fire for three or four Hours, often ſhaking and ſtirring them: Then open the Cover, and turn and remove thoſe Stalks which lie at the Bottom, to the Top, and boil them as before, till they are all of a Colour. When all is cold, pot them with freſh White-Wine Vinegar, and ſo you may preſerve them the whole Year round.

22. Radiſh. The Seed-Pods of this Root being pickl’d, are a pretty Sallet.

23. Sampier. Let it be gathered about Michaelmas (or the Spring) and put two or three hours into a Brine of Water and Salt; then into a clean Tin’d Braſs Pot, with three parts of ſtrong White-Wine Vinegar, and one part of Water and Salt, or as much as will cover the Sampier, keeping the Vapour from iſſuing out, by paſting down the Pot-lid, and ſo hang it over the Fire for half an Hour only. Being taken off, let it remain covered till it be cold; and then put it up into ſmall Barrels or Jars, with the Liquor, and ſome freſh Vinegar, Water and Salt; and thus it will keep very green. If you be near the Sea, that Water will ſupply the place of Brine. This is the Dover Receit.

24. Walnuts. Gather the Nuts young, before they begin to harden, but not before the Kernel is pretty white: Steep them in as much Water as will more than cover them. Then ſet them on the Fire, and when the water boils, and grows black, pour it off, and ſupply it with freſh, boiling it as before, and continuing to ſhift it till it become clear, and the Nuts pretty tender: Then let them be put into clean Spring Water for two Days, changing it as before with freſh, two or three times within this ſpace: Then lay them to drain, and dry on a clean courſe Cloth, and put them up in a Glaſs Jar, with a few Walnut Leaves, Dill, Cloves, Pepper, whole Mace and Salt; ſtrowing them under every Layer of Nuts, till the Veſſel be three quarters full; and laſtly, repleniſhing it with the beſt Vinegar, keep it well covered; and ſo they will be fit to ſpend within three Months.

To make a Mango with them.
The green Nuts prepared as before, cover the Bottom of the Jar with ſome Dill, an Handful of Bay-Salt, &c. and then a Bed of Nuts; and ſo ſtratum upon ſtratum, as above, adding to the Spice ſomeRoccombo-Seeds; and filling the reſt of the Jar with the beſt White-Wine Vinegar, mingled with the beſt Muſtard; and to let them remain cloſe covered, during two or three Months time: And thus have you a more agreeable Mango than what is brought us from abroad; which you may uſe in any Sauce, and is of it ſelf a rich Condiment.

Thus far Pickles.

25. Potage Maigre. Take four Quarts of Spring-Water, two or three Onions ſtuck with ſome Cloves, two or three Slices of Limon Peel, Salt, whole white Pepper, Mace, a Raze or two of Ginger, tied up in a fine Cloth (Lawn or Tiffany) and make all boil for half an Hour; Then having Spinage, Sorrel, white Beet-Chard, a little Cabbage, a few ſmall Tops of Cives, waſh’d and pick’d clean, ſhred them well, and caſt them into the Liquor, with a Pint of blue Peaſe boil’d ſoft and ſtrain’d, with a Bunch of ſweet Herbs, the Top and Bottom of a French Roll; and ſo ſuffer it to boil during three Hours; and then diſh it with another ſmall French Roll, and Slices about the Diſh: Some cut Bread in ſlices, and frying them brown (being dried) put them into the Pottage juſt as it is going to be eaten.

The ſame Herbs, clean waſh’d, broken and pulled aſunder only, being put in a cloſe cover’d Pipkin, without any other Water or Liquor, will ſtew in their own Juice and Moiſture. Some add an whole Onion, which after a while ſhould be taken out, remembring to ſeaſon it with Salt and Spice, and ſerve it up with Bread and a Piece of freſh Butter.

26. Pudding of Carrot. Pare off ſome of the Cruſt of Manchet-Bread, and grate of half as much of the reſt as there is of the Root, which muſt alſo be grated: Then take half a Pint of freſh Cream or New Milk, half a Pound of freſh Butter, ſix new laid Eggs (taking out three of the Whites) maſh and mingle them well with the Cream and Butter: Then put in the grated Bread and Carrot, with near half a Pound of Sugar; and a little Salt; ſome grated Nutmeg and beaten Spice; and pour all into a convenient Diſh or Pan, butter’d, to keep the Ingredients from ſticking and burning; ſet it in a quick Oven for about an Hour, and ſo have you a Compoſition for any Root-Pudding.

27. Penny-royal. The Cream, Eggs, Spice, &c. as above, but not ſo much Sugar and Salt: Take a pretty Quantity of Peny-royal and Marigold flower, &c. very well ſhred, and mingle with the Cream, Eggs, &c. four spoonfuls of Sack; half a Pint more of Cream, and almoſt a Pound of Beef-Suet chopt very ſmall, the Gratings of a Two-penny Loaf, and ſtirring all well together, put it into a Bag flower’d and tie it faſt. It will be boil’d within an Hour: Or may be baked in the Pan like the Carrot-Pudding. The ſauce is for both, a little Roſe-water, leſs Vinegar, with Butter beaten together and poured on it ſweetned with the Sugar Caſter.

Of this Plant diſcreetly dried, is made a moſt wholſom and excellent Tea.

28. Of Spinage. Take a ſufficient Quantity of Spinach, ſtamp and ſtrain out the Juice; put to it grated Manchet, the Yolk of as many Eggs as in the former Compoſition of the Carrot-Pudding; ſome Marrow ſhred ſmall, Nutmeg, Sugar, ſome Corinths, (if you pleaſe) a few Carroways, Roſe, or Orange-flower Water (as you beſt like) to make it grateful. Mingle all with a little boiled Cream; and ſet the Diſh or Pan in the Oven, with a Garniſh of Puff-Paſte. It will require but very moderate Baking. Thus have you Receits for Herb Puddings.

29. Skirret-Milk Is made by boiling the Roots tender, and the Pulp ſtrained out, put into Cream or new Milk boiled, with three or four Yolks of Eggs, Sugar, large Mace and other Spice, &c. And thus is compoſed any other Root-Milk.

30. Tanſie. Take the Gratings or Slices of three Naples-Biſcuits, put them into half a Pint of Cream; with twelve freſh Eggs, four of the Whites caſt out, ſtrain the reſt, and break them with two Spoonfuls of Roſe-water, a little Salt and Sugar, half a grated Nutmeg: And when ready for the Pan, put almoſt a Pint of the Juice of Spinach, Cleaver, Beets, Corn-Sallet, Green Corn, Violet, or Primroſe tender Leaves, (for of any of theſe you may take your choice) with a very ſmall Sprig of Tanſie, and let it be fried ſo as to look green in the Diſh, with a Strew of Sugar and ſtore of the Juice of Orange: ſome affect to have it fryed a little brown and criſp.

31. Tart of Herbs. An Herb-Tart is made thus: Boil freſh Cream or Milk, with a little grated Bread or Naples-Biſcuit (which is better) to thicken it; a pretty Quantity of Chervile, Spinach, Beete (or what other Herb you pleaſe) being firſt par-boil’d and chop’d. Then add Macaron, or Almonds beaten to a Paſte, a little ſweet Butter, the Yolk of five Eggs, three of the Whites rejected. To theſe ſome add Corinths plump’d in Milk, or boil’d therein, Sugar, Spice at Diſcretion, and ſtirring it all together over the Fire, bake it in the Tart-Pan.

32. Thiſtle. Take the long Stalks of the middle Leaf of the Milky-Thiſtle, about May, when they are young and tender: waſh and ſcrape them, and boil them in Water, with a little Salt, till they are very ſoft, and ſo let them lie to drain. They are eaten with freſh Butter melted not too thin, and is a delicate and wholſome Diſh. Other Stalks of the ſame kind may ſo be treated, as the Bur, being tender and diſarmed of its Prickles, &c.

33. Trufles, and other Tubers, and Boleti, are roaſted whole in the Embers; then ſlic’d and ſtew’d in ſtrong Broth with Spice, &c. as Muſhroms are.

34. Turnep. Take their Stalks (when they begin to run up to ſeed) as far as they will eaſily break downwards: Peel and tie them in Bundles. Then boiling them as they do Sparagus, are to be eaten with melted Butter. Laſtly,

35. Minc’d, or Sallet-all-sorts. Take Almonds blanch’d in cold Water, cut them round and thin, and ſo leave them in the Water; Then have pickl’d Cucumbers, Olives, Cornelians, Capers, Berberries, Red-Beet, Buds of Naſturtium, Broom, &c. Purſlan-stalk, Sampier, Aſh-Keys, Walnuts, Muſhrooms (and almoſt of all the pickl’d Furniture) with Raiſins of the Sun ſton’d, Citron and Orange-Peel, Corinths (well cleanſed and dried) &c. mince them ſeverally (except the Corinths) or all together; and ſtrew them over with any Candy’d Flowers, and ſo diſpose of them in the ſame Diſh both mixt, and by themſelves. To theſe add roaſted Maroons, Piſtachios, Pine-Kernels, and of Almonds four times as much as of the reſt, with ſome Roſe-water. Here alſo come in the Pickled Flowers and Vinegar in little China Diſhes. And thus have you an Univerſal Winter-Sallet, or an All ſort in Compendium, fitted for a City Feaſt, and diſtinguiſhed from the Grand-Sallet: which ſhou’d conſiſt of the Green blanch’d and unpickled, under a ſtatelyPennaſh of Sellery, adorn’d with Buds and Flowers.

And thus have we preſented you a Taſte of our Engliſh Garden Houſewifry in the matter of Sallets: And though ſome of them may be Vulgar, (as are moſt of the beſt things;) Yet ſhe was willing to impart them, to ſhew the Plenty, Riches and Variety of the Sallet-Garden: And to juſtifie what has been aſſerted of the Poſſibility of living (not unhappily) on Herbs and Plants, according to Original and Divine Inſtitution, improved by Time and long Experience. And if we have admitted Muſhroms among the reſt (contrary to our Intention, and for Reaſons given.) ſince many will by no means abandon them, we have endeavoured to preſerve them from thoſe pernicious Effects which are attributed to, and really in them: We cannot tell indeed whether they were ſo treated and accommodated for the moſt Luxurious of the Cæſarean Tables, when that Monarchy was in its higheſt Strain of Epicuriſm, and ingroſs’d this Haugout for their ſecond Courſe; whilſt this we know, that ’tis but what Nature affords all her Vagabonds under every Hedge.

And now, that our Sallets may not want a Glaſs of generous Wine of the ſame Growth with the reſt of the Garden to recommend it, let us have your Opinion of the following.

Cowſlip-Wine. To every Gallon of Water put two Pounds of Sugar; boil it an Hour, and ſet it to cool: Then ſpread a good brown Toaſt on both Sides with Yeaſt: But before you make uſe of it, beat ſome Syrup of Citron with it, an Ounce and half of Syrup to each Gallon of Liquor: Then put in the Toaſt whilſt hot, to aſſiſt its Fermentation, which will ceaſe in two Days; during which time caſt in the Cowſlip-Flowers (a little bruiſed, but not much ſtamp’d) to the Quantity of half a Buſhel to ten Gallons (or rather three Pecks) four Limons ſlic’d, with the Rinds and all. Laſtly, one Pottle of White or Rheniſh Wine; and then after two Days, tun it up in a ſweet Cask. Some leave out all the Syrup.

And here, before we conclude, ſince there is nothing of more conſtant Uſe than good Vinegar; or that has ſo near an Affinity to all our Acetaria, we think it not amiſs to add the following (much approved) Receit.

Vinegar. To every Gallon of Spring Water let there be allowed three Pounds of Malaga-Raiſins: Put them in an Earthen Jarr, and place them where they may have the hotteſt Sun, from May till Michaelmas:Then preſſing them well, Tun the Liquor up in a very ſtrong Iron-Hooped Veſſel to prevent its burſting. It will appear very thick and muddy when newly preſs’d, but will refine in the Veſſel, and be as clear as Wine. Thus let it remain untouched for three Months, before it be drawn off, and it will prove Excellent Vinegar.

Butter. Butter being likewiſe ſo frequent and neceſſary an Ingredient to divers of the foregoing Appendants: It ſhould be carefully melted, that it turn not to an Oil; which is prevented by melting it leiſurely, with a little fair Water at the Bottom of the Diſh or Pan; and by continual ſhaking and ſtirring, kept from boiling or over-heating, which makes it rank.

Other rare and exquiſite Liquors and Teas (Products of our Gardens only) we might ſuper-add, which we leave to our Lady Houſewives, whoſe Province indeed all this while it is.


Ancient Plants – Appendix III


A short list of a few of the more important papers and books to which a student should refer. The innumerable papers of the specialists will be found cited in these, so that, as they would be read only by advanced students, there is no attempt to catalog them here.

Carruthers, W., “On Fossil Cycadean Stems from the Secondary Rocks of Britain,” published in the Transactions of the Linnean Society, vol. xxvi, 1870.

*Geikie, A., A Text-Book of Geology, vols. i and ii, London, 1903.

Grand’Eury, C., “Flore Carbonifère du département de la Loire et du center de la France”, published in the Mémoirs de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, vol. xxiv, 1877.

*Kidston, R., Catalogue of the Palæozoic Plants in the Department of Geology and Palæontology of the British Museum, London, 1886.

*Lapworth, C., An Intermediate Text-Book of Geology, twelfth edition, London, 1888.

Laurent, L., “Les Progrès de la paléobotanique angiospermique dans la dernière decade”, Progressus Rei Botanicæ, vol. i, Heft 2, pp. 319-68, Jena, 1907.

Lindley, J., and Hutton, W., The Fossil Flora of Great Britain, 3 vols., published in London, 1831-7.

Lyell, C., Principles of Geology and The Student’s Lyell, edited by J. W. Judd, London, 1896.

Oliver, F. W., and Scott, D. H., “On the Structure of the Palæozoic Seed, Lagenostoma Lomaxi”, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society, series B, vol. cxcvii, London, 1904.

Renault, B., Cours de Botanique fossile, Paris, 1882, 4 vols.

Renault, B., Bassin Houiller et Permien d’Autun et d’Epinac, Atlas and Text, 1893-6, Paris.

*Scott, D. H., Studies in Fossil Botany, London, second edition, 1909.

Scott, D. H., “On the Structure and Affinities of Fossil Plants from the Palæozoic Rocks. On Cheirostrobus, a New Type of Fossil Cone from the Lower Carboniferous Strata.” Published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. clxxxix, B, 1897.

*Seward, A. C., Fossil Plants, vol. i, Cambridge, 1898.

Seward, A. C., Catalogue of the Mesozoic Plants in the Department of Geology of the British Museum, Parts I and II, London, 1894-5.

*Solms-Laubach, Graf zu, Fossil Botany (translation from the German), Oxford, 1891.

Stopes, M. C., and Watson, D. M. S., “On the Structure and Affinities of the Calcareous Concretions known as ‘Coal Balls’”, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, vol. cc.

*Stopes, M. C., The Study of Plant Life for Young People, London, 1906.

*Watts, W. W., Geology for Beginners, London, 1905 (second edition).

Wieland, G. R., American Fossil Cycads, Carnegie Institute, 1906.

Williamson, W. C., A whole series of publications in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from 1871 to 1891, and three later ones jointly with Dr. Scott; the series entitled “On the Organization of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures”, Memoir I, II, &c.

Zeiller, R., Éléments de Paléobotanique, Paris, 1900.

*Zittel, K., Handbuch der Palæontologie, vol. ii; Palæophytologie, by Schimper & Schenk, München and Leipzig, 1900.

Those marked * would be found the most useful for one beginning the subject.

Ancient Plants – Appendix II


1. The commonest form in which fossils are collected is that which has been described as impression material. In many cases these will need no further attention after the block of stone on which they lie has been chipped into shape.

In chipping a block down to the size required it is best to hold it freely in the left hand, protecting the actual specimen with the palm where possible, and taking the surplus edges away by means of short sharp blows from the hammer, striking so that only small pieces come away with each blow. For delicate specimens it is wise to leave a good margin of the matrix round the specimen, and to do the final clearing with a thin-bladed penknife, taking away small flakes of the stone with delicate taps on the handle of the knife.

Specimens from fine sandstones, shales, and limestones are usually thoroughly hard and resistant, and are then much better if left without treatment; by varnishing and polishing them many amateur collectors spoil their specimens, for a coat of shiny varnish often conceals the details of the fossil itself. Impressions of plants on friable shales, on the other hand, or those which have a tendency to peel off as they dry, will require some treatment. In such cases the best substance to use is a dilute solution of size, in which the specimen should soak for a short period while the liquid is warm (not hot), after which it should be slightly drained and the size allowed to dry in. The congealed substance then holds the plant film on to the rock surface and prevents the rock from crumbling away, while it is almost invisible and does not spoil the plant with any excessive glaze.

2. For specimens of casts the same treatment generally applies, though they are more apt to separate completely from the matrix after one or two sharp blows, and thus save one the work of picking out the details of their structure.

3. Those blocks which contain petrifactions, and can therefore be made to show microscopic details, will require much more treatment. In some cases mere polishing reveals much of the structure:such, for instance, were the “Staarsteine” of the German lapidaries, where the axis and rootlets of a fossil like a treefern show their very characteristic pattern distinctly.

As a rule, however, it is better, and for any detailed work it is essential, to cut thin sections transversely across and longitudinally through the axis of the specimen and to grind them down till they are so transparent that they can be studied through the microscope. The cutting can be done on a lapidary’s wheel, where a revolving metal disc set with diamond powder acts as a knife. The comparatively thin slice thus obtained is fastened on to glass by means of hard Canada balsam, and rubbed down with carborundum powder till it is thin enough.

The process, however, is very slow, and an amateur cannot get good results without spending a large amount of time and patience over the work which would be better spent over the study of the plant structures themselves. Therefore it is usually more economical to send specimens to be cut by a professional, if they are good enough to be worth cutting at all, though it is often advisable to cut through an unpromising block to see whether its preservation is such as would justify the expense.

In the case of true “coal balls” much can be seen on the cut surface of a block, particularly if it be washed for a minute in dilute hydrochloric acid and then in water, and then dried thoroughly. The acid acts on the carbonates of which the stone is largely composed, and the treatment accentuates the black-and-white contrast in the petrified tissues. After lying about for a few months the sharpness of the surface gets rubbed off, as the acid eats it into very delicate irregularities which break and form a smearing powder; but in such a case all that is needed to bring back the original perfection of definition is a quick wash of dilute acid and water. If the specimens are not rubbed at all the surface is practically permanent. Blocks so treated reveal a remarkable amount of detail when examined with a strong hand lens, and form very valuable museum specimens.

The microscope slides should be covered with glass slips (as they would naturally be if purchased), and studied under the microscope as sections of living plants would be.

Microscopic slides of fossils make excellent museum specimens when mounted as transparencies against a window or strong light, when a magnifying glass will reveal all but the last minutiæ of their structure.

4. Labelling and numbering of specimens is very important, even if the collection be but a small one. As well as the paper label giving full details, there should be a reference number on every specimen itself. On the microscope slides this can be cut with a diamond pencil, and on the stones sealing wax dissolved in alcohol painted on with a brush is perhaps the best medium. On light-coloured close-textured stones ink is good, and when quite dry can even be washed without blurring.

The importance of marking the stone itself will be brought home to one on going through an old collection where the paper labels have peeled or rubbed off, or their wording been obliterated by age or mould.

A notebook should be kept in which the numbers are entered, with a note of all the items on the paper label, and any additional details of interest.

Ancient Plants – Appendix I


In order to obtain the best possible results from an expedition, it is well to go fossil hunting in a party of two, four, or six persons. Large parties tend to split up into detachments, or to waste time in trying to keep together.

Each individual should have strong suitable clothes, with as many pockets arranged in them as possible. The weight of the stones can thus be distributed over the body, and is not felt so much as if they were all carried in a knapsack. Each collector should also provide himself with:

A satchel or knapsack, preferably of leather or strong canvas, but not of large size, for when the space is limited selection of the specimens is likely to be made carefully.

One or two hammers. If only one is carried, it should be of a fair size with a square head and strong straight edge.

One chisel, entirely of metal, and with a strong straight cutting edge.

Soft paper to wrap up the more delicate fossils, in order to prevent them from scraping each other’s surfaces; and one or two small cardboard boxes for very fragile specimens.

A map of the district (preferably geologically colored). Localities should be noted in pencil on this, indicating the exact spot of finds. For general work the one-inch survey map suffices, but for detailed work it is necessary to have the six-inch maps of important districts.

A small notebook. Few notes are needed, but those few must be taken on the spot to be reliable.

A pencil or fountain pen, preferably both.

A penknife, which, among other things, will be found useful for working out very delicate fossils.